B55 Chronological table of Japanese art. Y A dictionary of Chinese symbols. E Dictionary of Korean art and archaeology. Encyclopedia of Tibetan symbols and motifs. T5 B44 The handbook of Tibetan Buddhist symbols.
T5 B Hotei encyclopedia of Japanese woodblock prints. H68 g Modern Chinese artists: a biographical dictionary. Includes full searching facilities and global standard report format for in-depth international searching and analysis. Includes detailed financials going back at least 10 years. Must access via Internet Explorer.
This database does not work in Firefox or Safari. Film Studies. An annotated bibliography for Chinese film studies. C4 C44 g Encyclopedia of Chinese film. Historical dictionary of Japanese cinema. J3 S45 Research guide to Japanese film studies.
see url J3 N67 Cumulative bibliography of Asian Studies: Author bibliography. C93 Cumulative bibliography of Asian Studies: Subject bibliography. Covers mainly East Asian historical subjects. Chinese history: a manual. Historical dictionary of medieval China. X58 Historical dictionary of modern China G Historical dictionary of revolutionary China, Location: DS H57 Historical dictionary of Taiwan Republic of China.
C67 Historical dictionary of the Chinese Civil War. L48 Historical dictionary of the Chinese Cultural Revolution. G86 Historical dictionary of the People's Republic of China. H C Tiananmen Square and U. Japan Historical dictionary of postwar Japan. H Historical dictionary of the Russo-Japanese War. Historical dictionary of North Korea.
K55 Historical dictionary of the Korean War.
E Historical dictionary of the Republic of Korea. N34 Mongolia Historical dictionary of Mongolia. S36 Human Rights and Humanitarian Issues. Japanese, Chinese, and Korean surnames and how to read them. China Chinese literature: overview and bibliography. C g Historical dictionary of Chinese theater. Y46 Historical dictionary of modern Chinese literature. Japan Biographical dictionary of Japanese literature. B5 Historical dictionary of Japanese traditional theatre.
L45 Historical dictionary of modern Japanese literature and theater. J36 Japanese women writers in English translation: an annotated bibliography. L5 M34 Includes full-text of the Wall Street Journal.
Encyclopedia of Asian philosophy. E53 Historical dictionary of Buddhism.
In the same period, notable annual average increases were recorded for charges for the use of intellectual property, transport and travel services 11 per cent, 10 per cent, and 7 per cent, respectively. Of the broad services items, only construction has seen a downturn in the same period -8 per cent. Travel is the only type of service export where LDCs and other developing economies have a revealed comparative advantage. The value is also slightly greater than 1. One of the most important drivers of trade in travel services is international tourism. In addition to the direct service itself, tourism can create large multiplier effects for the domestic economy.
It promotes growth and employment in a multitude of economic sectors such as domestic transportation, hotels and restaurants, financial services, cultural services and many others. It also attracts investment and promotes the development of the private sector.
It has been difficult to measure the contribution of tourism to GDP. The development of the tourism satellite account has been an important step in advancing the measurement of the economic contribution of tourism see United Nations et al.
TSA measures direct contributions of tourism consumption to the national economy. However, it does not account for the indirect contributions of tourism to GDP.
The final framework is planned to be submitted for global consultation and consideration by the United Nations Statistical Commission. Map 1 shows that tourism has a significant economic contribution in many countries. For example, many SIDS depend on exporting tourism services to a great extent, accounting for more than, on average, 50 per cent of total exports World Bank, Map 1. Direct contribution of tourism to employment, Percentage of global employment Economies.
The contribution of tourism to the global economy is forecast to increase. The annual growth rate of worldwide arrivals of international tourists, a volume indicator for this sector, have been close to 5 per cent or more since Still, more than half of all tourist arrivals are recorded in Europe and Northern America, two developed regions. As can be seen in figure 10, other regions of the world, mostly developing countries, including LDCs, receive a relatively small share of international tourist arrivals.
However, this is gradually changing. Figure 11 shows that Europe and Northern America are also the two regions with the lowest rate of growth in recent years. Most parts of Asia have shown a remarkable dynamism in tourism, with Western Asia, affected by conflict and political instability, as the only exception. SDG Target Although tourism can bring substantial resources and economic opportunities, it can also bring challenges for sustainable development: Tourism can help finance the preservation of historical and environmental treasures, but if poorly managed it will achieve the opposite UNCTAD, , target 12b.
Tourists contribute to climate change in many ways — through travel by air, rail, roads and sea, and by consuming goods and services, such as food, accommodation, events and souvenirs. For comparison purposes, this is equivalent to 3. A country with this amount of emissions would be the 7th most polluting country in the world in terms of CO 2 Muntean et al.
Comparably large amounts of energy, fresh water, land and food are also consumed by this industry. Another study, with a more comprehensive scope, that includes upstream supply chains and all greenhouse emissions, Lenzen et al. When not properly managed, tourism can exploit natural resources in an unsustainable way, harm biodiversity and natural capital, undermine cultural heritage, and exacerbate existing socioeconomic inequality.
Tourism sector is a major consumer of energy. In countries with generally low household energy consumption rates, large tourist establishments represent major exceptions where energy is used, in particular, for comforts such as air-conditioning, heating and laundry. Tourist and sports infrastructures, such as ski lifts, may also be a significant energy consumer relative to local consumption.
This involves heating, air-conditioning and the maintenance of bars, restaurants, pools and so on. In , North America accounted for 40 per cent of these emissions, Asia and the Pacific just under 30 per cent, and Africa only 2 per cent. Although tourism is growing rapidly in the Middle East, its share of emissions will continue to be small around 5 per cent. By contrast, North America and Europe will together contribute to about 50 per cent of global accommodation emissions in down by 10 per cent compared to Growth in tourism is resulting in increasing amounts of investment in infrastructure: buildings, traffic networks and access to transport services, land take and supply services in destinations.
This has a direct impact on the environment in terms of resource use land and water , biodiversity and waste generation. Vote count. We are sorry that this post was not useful for you! SDG indicators.
Target Indicator 8. Table of contents. Figure 1.